Evolution of the CAM pathway in pineapple

(a) Pineapple leaf tissue used to survey the diurnal expression patterns of CAM pathway genes. The fully expanded D leaf of field-grown pineapple is shown. Green (photosynthetic) tissue at the leaf tip and white (non-photosynthetic) tissue at the leaf base were collected to distinguish CAM-related gene expression from non-CAM-related circadian oscillation.
(b) Overview of the carboxylation (top)and decarboxylation (bottom) pathways of CAM. CAM enzymes are shown in blue.
(c) Expression pattern and cis-regulatory elements of pineapple carbon fixation genes across the diurnal expression data. log2-transformed fragments mapped per kilobase of transcript length per million total mapped reads (FPKM) expression profiles are shown. Four known circadian clock–related binding motif sequences were searched in the 1-kb region upstream of each gene.
(d) Summary table of the number of putative carbon fixation genes in pineapple, orchid, rice and maize.
(e) Gene regulatory network of green leaf tissue. Only the largest module of the network was kept. Genes related to CAM and their interaction partners are highlighted in yellow.
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